However, net migration which had been positive up to 2012 was  negative since then but has been positive since 2017.   This highlights how important it is to have positive net migration to counteract the negative natural change. 125–35, "The quiet revolution". [7] It incorporates Lewis in the north and Harris in the south, both of which are frequently referred to as individual islands, although they are connected by land. [102] Nonetheless the aftermath of the decisive Battle of Culloden, which effectively ended Jacobite hopes of a Stuart restoration, was widely felt. It has a population of around 130, scattered along the 5 km or so of road. Situated west of Scotland’s mainland is an archipelago known as the Outer Hebrides. The history of the Outer Hebrides begins with the melting of the ice-sheets and the arrival of Mesolithic Man. It is possible that Ptolemy did as well, as Agricola's information about the west coast of Scotland was of poor quality. This situation lasted until the partitioning of the Western Isles in 1156, at which time the Outer Hebrides remained under Norwegian control while the Inner Hebrides broke out under Somerled, the Norse-Celtic kinsman of the Manx royal house. Cumulatively, the 15 inhabited islands that make up the Outer Hebrides have a total population … They were pirates, extracting tribute from the coasts of Ireland and one of their kings was Indech mac Dé Domnand (i.e. [10] Of Loch Sgadabhagh on North Uist it has been said that "there is probably no other loch in Britain which approaches Loch Scadavay in irregularity and complexity of outline. There are relatively small outcrops of Triassic sandstone at Broad Bay near Stornoway. [71][72] Dumna is cognate with the Early Celtic dumnos and means the "deep-sea isle". There followed a period of peace, but all too soon the clans were at loggerheads again. The highest eminence is Mealisval at 574 m (1,883 ft) in the south west. The scenic qualities of the islands are reflected in the fact that three of Scotland's forty national scenic areas (NSAs) are located here. [113] Millennia of continuous occupation notwithstanding, many of the remoter islands were abandoned — Mingulay in 1912, Hirta in 1930, and Ceann Iar in 1942 among them. This may have brought peace to the islands, but in the following century it came at a terrible price. [55][Note 3], Granite intrusions are found in the parish of Barvas in west Lewis, and another forms the summit plateau of the mountain Roineabhal in Harris. [138] There are numerous sites of wrecked ships, and the Flannan Isles are the location of an enduring mystery that occurred in December 1900, when all three lighthouse keepers vanished without trace. It is worn all around the world, but it is woven across a string of islands in the Atlantic. [96], The growing threat that Clan Donald posed to the Scottish crown led to the forcible dissolution of the Lordship of the Isles by James IV in 1493, but although the king had the power to subdue the organised military might of the Hebrides, he and his immediate successors lacked the will or ability to provide an alternative form of governance. The council has its base in Stornoway on Lewis and is often known locally simply as "the Comhairle" or a' Chomhairle. In the 18th century, the population was over fifty, but the last native islanders had left by 1931. [59] Winds are a key feature of the climate and even in summer there are almost constant breezes. More than 35 such islands have been identified in the Outer Hebrides alone. This 6th century stele shows a flower, V-rod and lunar crescent to which has been added a later and somewhat crude cross. Following the 2011 Census, National Records of Scotland (NRS) produced revised population estimates for 2002 to 2010. [12][41][42] This means that all the inhabited islands are now connected to at least one other island by a land transport route. Scheduled ferry services between the Outer Hebrides and the Scottish Mainland and Inner Hebrides operate on the following routes: Other ferries operate between some of the islands. The Western Isles, including Stornoway, are defined by Highlands and Islands Enterprise as an economically "Fragile Area" and they have an estimated trade deficit of some £163.4 million. Retrieved 20 October 2012. The whole Outer Hebrides area is also a stronghold for the Gaelic language; estimates of around 60% of the population speaking it to some degree. The island does not have a single name in either English or Gaelic, and is referred to as "Lewis and Harris", "Lewis with Harris", "Harris with Lewis" etc. A considerable number of islandmen "came out" in support of the Jacobite Earl of Mar in the "15" although the response to the 1745 rising was muted. At the end of the 17th century, the picture we have of Lewis that of a people pursuing their avocation in peace, but not in plenty. The island became completely uninhabited by 1980 with the automation of the lighthouse. [86] Norse control of the Hebrides was formalised in 1098 when Edgar, King of Scotland formally signed the islands over to Magnus III of Norway. Browse our site to find your history. The national scenic areas are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development,[18] and are considered to represent the type of scenic beauty "popularly associated with Scotland and for which it is renowned". This decrease can be attributed to the low net migration (50) but is mainly due to  the negative ‘natural change’. In addition to the Outer Hebrides, they form basement deposits on the Scottish mainland west of the Moine Thrust and on the islands of Coll and Tiree. The "Mingulay Boat Song", although evocative of island life, was written after the abandonment of the island in 1938[47] and Taransay hosted the BBC television series Castaway 2000. (19 January 2007). & Ralston, Ian B.M. There are four main sports centres: Ionad Spors Leodhais in Stornoway, which has a 25 m swimming pool; Harris Sports Centre; Lionacleit Sports Centre on Benbecula; and Castlebay Sports Centre on Barra. The Outer Hebrides population also has a higher percentage of individuals in the older age groups and correspondingly less in the younger age groups. From Barra Head to the Butt of Lewis is roughly 210 kilometres (130 mi). [14] The Uists and their immediate outliers have a combined area of 745.4 square kilometres (288 sq mi). Bus na Comhairle (meaning "Bus of the Council") is the council-owned local bus company of the Western Isles of Scotland. It has a population of around 130, scattered along the 5 km or so of road. km ) is lower than that for the Highlands and Islands (12 people per sq. From Old Norse, Ballin Smith, B. and Banks, I. 1: T he Outer Hebrides retains and attracts people to ensure a sustainable population. In 2019 the average age of residents in the Outer Hebrides was over seven years older than in Scotland (49.5 to 42 years). The Seaforths ..., besides establishing orderly Government in the island.. had done a great deal to rescue the people from the slough of ignorance and incivility in which they found themselves immersed. The other independent-run councils are Shetland and Orkney. [149][150], South Uist is home to the Askernish Golf Course. [143] 11% stated that they had no religion. According to the writer W. H. Murray if a visitor asks an islander for a weather forecast "he will not, like a mainlander answer dry, wet or sunny, but quote you a figure from the Beaufort Scale. Initially successful, the colonists were driven out by local forces commanded by Murdoch and Neil MacLeod, who based their forces on Bearasaigh in Loch Ròg. The creation of the Highlands and Islands Development Board and the discovery of substantial deposits of North Sea oil in 1965, the establishment of a unitary local authority for the islands in 1975 and more recently the renewables sector have all contributed to a degree of economic stability in recent decades. [110] Nonetheless emigration and military service became the choice of many[111] and the archipelago's populations continued to dwindle throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries. The districts are Stornoway representing the outer Hebrides, and on the west coast, from north to south, Kinlochbervie, Lochinver, Ullapool, Mallaig, Oban and Campbeltown. Lewisian gneiss is sometimes described as the oldest rock found in Europe, but trondhjemite gneiss recently measured at Siurua in Finland has been dated to 3.4–3.5 Ga. The last official statistic for the population of the Outer Hebrides was released in 2011, and it had shown a rise of +4.5%, putting the population number at 27,684. The estimated decrease in the population of the Outer Hebrides from 2018-2019 can be attributed to  low net migration (more in-migration than out-migration) which was estimated to be 50 but is mainly due to  negative ‘natural change’. [87] Thompson (1968) provides a more literal translation: "Fire played in the fig-trees of Liodhus; it mounted up to heaven. The islands also provide a habitat for other important species such as corncrake, hen harrier, golden eagle and otter. The Highland Clearances of the 19th century destroyed communities throughout the Highlands and Islands as the human populations were evicted and replaced with sheep farms. In addition to the major North Ford (Oitir Mhòr) and South Ford causeways that connect North Uist to Benbecula via the northern of the Grimsays, and another causeway from Benbecula to South Uist, several other islands are linked by smaller causeways or bridges. "The ancient geography of Scotland" in Smith and Banks (2002) pp. The Outer Hebrides have a unique Gaelic culture and many traditions while religion plays a very important role in daily life. The summer days are relatively long and May to August is the driest period. Some Facts and Figures. Offshore, basking shark and various species of whale and dolphin can often be seen,[29] and the remoter islands' seabird populations are of international significance. Within ten minutes the ship began to founder and break up casting 450 people into the raging sea. The Outer Hebrides are administered by Comhairle nan Eilean Siar and had a population … [90] Although their contribution to the islands can still be found in personal and placenames, the archaeological record of the Norse period is very limited. [147], Outdoor activities including rugby, football, golf, shinty, fishing, riding, canoeing, athletics, and multi-sports are popular in the Western Isles. The granite here is anorthosite, and is similar in composition to rocks found in the mountains of the Moon. Although it was in use until the 1930s, its existence was largely forgotten until 2005 and it is now being restored to Morris's original design. There are also more than 7,500 freshwater lochs in the Outer Hebrides, about 24% of the total for the whole of Scotland. By 2001 the population of North Uist was only 1,271. Harris has fewer large bodies of water but has innumerable small lochans. 4% of the respondents did not answer this census question and the total for all other religions combined is 1 per cent. [119], Modern commercial activities centre on tourism, crofting, fishing, and weaving including the manufacture of Harris tweed. [74], Other early written references include the flight of the Nemed people from Ireland to Domon, which is mentioned in the 12th-century Lebor Gabála Érenn and a 13th-century poem concerning Raghnall mac Gofraidh, then the heir to the throne of Mann and the Isles, who is said to have "broken the gate of Magh Domhna". The Outer Hebrides, located off the west coast of mainland Scotland, comprise 119 islands, but most of them are inhabited. Control of the islands was then held by clan chiefs, principal of whom were the MacLeods, MacDonalds, Mackenzies and MacNeils. [25][26], There has been considerable controversy over hedgehogs on the Uists. Looking back further from 1901 to 2011 the population of the Outer Hebrides has declined by 40% (46,000 in 1901).  The population change from 1901 to 2011  is illustrated in figure 3 below. The Scottish independence referendum has led some islanders to call for a debate on the constitutional position of the Western Isles, linked with similar initiatives in Orkney and Shetland. [49] A similar distance to the north of Lewis are North Rona and Sula Sgeir, two small and remote islands. [78], In Scotland, the Celtic Iron Age way of life, often troubled but never extinguished by Rome, re-asserted itself when the legions abandoned any permanent occupation in 211 AD. With 59.3% of Gaelic speakers or a total of 15,723 speakers, this made the Outer Hebrides the most strongly coherent Gaelic speaking area in Scotland. This idea is often repeated but no firm evidence of this derivation has emerged. Figure 2: Natural Change and Net Migration in the Outer Hebrides 2009 to 2019. [45] On Barra Head, for example, Historic Scotland have identified eighty-three archaeological sites on the island, the majority being of a pre-medieval date. At high water the runways are under the sea so flight times vary with the tide.[136][137]. [135], There are scheduled flights from Stornoway, Benbecula and Barra airports both inter-island and to the mainland. [75], In modern Gaelic the islands are sometimes referred to collectively as An t-Eilean Fada (the Long Island)[55] or Na h-Eileanan a-Muigh (the Outer Isles). The ruins of the small village on Hirta still provide a remarkable reminder of the people who used to live there. 4 – NW Scotland & Outer Hebrides. [107] The pre-clearance population of the island had been almost 5,000, although by 1841 it had fallen to 3,870 and was only 2,349 by 1931. The situation in the Outer Hebrides is however more marked than elsewhere in Scotland. MacMahon, Peter and Walker, Helen (18 May 2007) "Winds of change sweep Scots town halls". [132] However, by 2011 the overall percentage of Gaelic speakers in the Outer Hebrides had fallen to 52%.[133]. Various Gaelic terms are used repeatedly:[78], There are also several islands called Orasaigh from the Norse Örfirirsey meaning "tidal" or "ebb island". The name for the British Parliament constituency covering this area is Na h-Eileanan an Iar, the seat being held by Angus MacNeil MP since 2005, while the Scottish Parliament constituency for the area is Na h-Eileanan an Iar, the incumbent being Alasdair Allan MSP. The Outer Hebrides programmes ensure that the benefits and participation of the local community is fundamental to the LEADER and EMFF ethos of networking, co-operation, transferring knowledge and integrating activities through enabling the delivery of the objectives of the Local Development Strategy which was developed for and by local communities. [145][146], Gaelic music is popular in the islands and the Lewis and Harris Traditional Music Society plays an active role in promoting the genre. [37] The largest settlement in the Outer Hebrides is Stornoway on Lewis,[38][39] which has a population of about 8,100.[40]. [34] During the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702. Demographically, the population of the Outer Hebrides is ageing. [61], The Hebrides were originally settled in the Mesolithic era and have a diversity of important prehistoric sites. For the parliamentary constituencies, see, Murray (1973) notes that "Western Isles" has tended to mean "Outer Hebrides" since the creation of the. [124][125] Since then, the islands have formed one of the 32 unitary council areas that now cover the whole country, with the council officially known by its Gaelic name, Comhairle nan Eilean Siar under the terms of the Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997. In 1540 James V himself conducted a royal tour, forcing the clan chiefs to accompany him. The remains of 350 men, women and children were buried in the dunes behind the beach and a small cairn and monument marks the site.[140]. [130], The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act was enacted by the Scottish Parliament in 2005 to provide continuing support for the language. The transitional relationships between Norse and Gaelic-speaking rulers are complex. Indech, son of the goddess Domnu, who ruled over the deep seas). The Kingdom had two parts: the Suðr-eyjar or South Isles encompassing the Hebrides and the Isle of Man; and the Norðr-eyjar or North Isles of Orkney and Shetland. However, the Education (Scotland) Act 1872 mandated English-only education, and is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language. Writing about 80 years later, in 140–150 AD, Ptolemy, drawing on the earlier naval expeditions of Agricola, also distinguished between the Ebudes, of which he writes there were only five (and thus possibly meaning the Inner Hebrides) and Dumna. The average annual rainfall in Lewis is 1,100 millimetres (43 in) and sunshine hours range from 1,100 to 1,200 per year. Many of this last group belong to the Free Church of Scotland, known for its strict observance of the Sabbath. The northern island is Lewis and Harris.South of Lewis and Harris is a series of islands, such as South Uist, Benbecula and North Uist.The Outer Herides includes a number of even smaller islands. km ) and considerably lower than the Scottish average (70 people per sq. The Seaforth's royalist inclinations led to Lewis becoming garrisoned during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms by Cromwell's troops, who destroyed the old castle in Stornoway and in 1645 Lewismen fought on the royalist side at the Battle of Auldearn. See for example Hunter (2000) pp. [19] The three NSA within the Outer Hebrides are: Much of the archipelago is a protected habitat, including both the islands and the surrounding waters. [54] The gneiss's delicate pink colours are exposed throughout the islands and it is sometimes referred to by geologists as "The Old Boy". Figure 1: Estimated Population in Outer Hebrides 2009-2019. The tiny Beasts of Holm off the east coast of Lewis were the site of the sinking of HMS Iolaire during the first few hours of 1919,[141] one of the worst maritime disasters in United Kingdom waters during the 20th century. The Hebridean Challenge is an adventure race run in five daily stages, which takes place along the length of the islands and includes hill and road running, road and mountain biking, short sea swims and demanding sea kayaking sections. The Scottish Gaelic language is still dominant in many communities in the Outer Hebrides. [44] In common with the other main island chains of Scotland, many of the more remote islands were abandoned during the 19th and 20th centuries, in some cases after continuous habitation since the prehistoric period. On present evidence that cannot be substantiated either in terms of environment, economy, or, indeed, society. [103] For example, Colonel Gordon of Cluny, owner of Barra, South Uist and Benbecula, evicted thousands of islanders using trickery and cruelty and even offered to sell Barra to the government as a penal colony. The oldest site found so far for these hunter-dweller ancestors is near Northton in the south of Harris, which has been dated to 9000 years ago, and no … This process involved a transition from these places being perceived as relatively self-sufficient agricultural economies[114] to a view becoming held by both island residents and outsiders alike that they lacked the essential services of a modern industrial economy. The best known find from this time is the Lewis chessmen, which date from the mid 12th century. Hedgehogs are not native to the islands but were introduced in the 1970s to reduce garden pests. The remaining population is scattered throughout over 280 townships. The historian W. C. MacKenzie was moved to write:[101]. [Note 1] The islands are geographically coextensive with Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, one of the 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. There are more than fifty uninhabited islands greater in size than 40 hectares (99 acres) in the Outer Hebrides, including the Barra Isles, Flannan Isles, Monach Islands, the Shiant Islands and the islands of Loch Ròg. The largest island of the Outer Hebrides is Lewis and Harris, and the other large islands are North Uist, Benbecula, South Uist, and Barra.Several smaller islands surround the main islands, and about 40 miles (65 km) northwest of the main chain is the St. Kilda island group. Education: The Outer Hebrides has a close knit community of schools, with many being amongst the most remote in all of the UK. The landscape is rocky and mountainous, but also lush and verdant - due in no small part to the large amounts of rain which tend to fall. By capturing the islands Magnus imposed a more direct royal control, although at a price. [81], The later Iron Age inhabitants of the northern and western Hebrides were probably Pictish, although the historical record is sparse. Outer Hebrides. However, this should not put off the potential visitor, and many would say that the Hebrides are just not the same without at least some drizzle - just bring some rain clothes! 2: The Outer Hebrides has sustainable economic growth and all our people have access to appropriate employment opportunities. [119], There is some optimism about the possibility of future developments in, for example, renewable energy generation, tourism, and education, and after declines in the 20th century the population has stabilised since 2003, although it is ageing. The Outer Hebrides. Outer Hebrides • Total population was 26,830 in 2018, a decrease of 3.1% from 2011. • Population density (9 people per sq. The population is estimated to have decreased over the last year primarily because of what’s known as ‘negative natural change’, which was … The fire gushed out of the houses". (Eds) (2003), McKirdy, Alan Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger (2007), This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 10:25. 11–13, Gammeltoft, Peder "Scandinavian Naming-Systems in the Hebrides: A Way of Understanding how the Scandinavians were in Contact with Gaels and Picts?" [126] The Comhairle is one of only three Councils in Scotland with a majority of elected members who are independents. The Outer Hebrides /ˈhɛbrɪdiːz/ or Western Isles (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan Siar [nə ˈhelanən ˈʃiəɾ] (listen) or Na h-Eileanan an Iar [nə ˈhelanən əˈɲiəɾ] (listen); Scots: Waster Isles), sometimes known as Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle/Long Island (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Fada), is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland. About the Outer Hebrides. In spite of the conditions, islanders tried to rescue the passengers and crew. Edinburgh. [147] Fèis Bharraigh began in 1981 with the aim of developing the practice and study of the Gaelic language, literature, music, drama and culture on the islands of Barra and Vatersay. [139], Annie Jane, a three-masted immigrant ship out of Liverpool bound for Montreal, Canada, struck rocks off the West Beach of Vatersay during a storm on Tuesday 28 September 1853. Some are not geologically part of the Outer Hebrides, but are administratively and in most cases culturally, part of Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. The average temperature for the year is 6 Â°C (44 Â°F) in January and 14 Â°C (57 Â°F) in summer. The only large town in the Outer Hebrides is Stornoway (Steòrnabhagh) with approximately 6,953 people in the Stornoway settlement Laxdale (Lacasdal), Sandwick (Sanndabhaig) and Newmarket. The Roman presence in Scotland was little more than a series of brief interludes within a longer continuum of indigenous development. The Western Isles became part of the Norse kingdom of the Suðreyjar, which lasted for over 400 years until sovereignty for the Outer Hebrides was transferred to Scotland by the Treaty of Perth in 1266. But in the sphere of economics their policy apparently was of little service to the community. Harris (Scottish Gaelic: Na Hearadh, pronounced [nə ˈhɛɾəɣ] ()) is the southern and more mountainous part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland.Although not an island itself, Harris is often referred to as the Isle of Harris, which is the former postal county and the current post town for Royal Mail postcodes starting HS3 or HS5; see HS postcode area. in Ballin Smith. During the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702. Consideration of the change in resident population from 1981 … They form part of the archipelago of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch, and the Sea of the Hebrides. [46], Some of the smaller islands continue to contribute to modern culture. The islands form an archipelago whose major islands are Lewis and Harris, North Uist, Benbecula, South Uist, and Barra. The Western Isles is a member of the International Island Games Association. The 2001 census statistics used are based on local authority areas but do not specifically identify Free Church or Episcopal adherents. When the sun does shine however, the resulting vistas are almost always … [130][131], Most areas were between 60-74% Gaelic speaking and the areas with the highest density of over 80% are Scalpay near Harris, Newtonferry and Kildonan, whilst Daliburgh, Linshader, Eriskay, Brue, Boisdale, West Harris, Ardveenish, Soval, Ness, and Bragar all have more than 75%. Over the last ten years (between 2009 and 2019) in the Outer Hebrides there has been a decrease of 700 persons (-2.6%). The largest settlement in the Outer Hebrides is Stornoway on Lewis, which has a population of about 8,100. [62][63] The Callanish Stones, dating from about 2900 BC, are the finest example of a stone circle in Scotland, the 13 primary monoliths of between one and five metres high creating a circle about 13 metres (43 ft) in diameter. [130], In the 2001 census, each island overall was over 50% Gaelic speaking – South Uist (71%), Harris (69%), Barra (68%), North Uist (67%), Lewis (56%) and Benbecula (56%). 187 students), Sgoil Lionacleit in Benbecula (approx. Figure 1 below plots the estimated population of the Outer Hebrides over the last ten years (2009-2019). [117] See also the "Innse Gall area plan 2010"[118] and the Comhairle's "Factfile – Economy". Modern navigation systems now minimise the dangers but in the past the stormy seas have claimed many ships. This Website uses cookies. km ). [64][65][66][67] Cladh Hallan on South Uist, the only site in the UK where prehistoric mummies have been found, and the impressive ruins of Dun Carloway broch on Lewis both date from the Iron Age. [39][109], The work of the Napier Commission and the Congested Districts Board, and the passing of the Crofting Act of 1886 helped, but social unrest continued. People still living can recall being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school. (1993) "Crannogs and chronologies", Breeze, David J. [31], The bumblebee Bombus jonellus var. [23][24] South Uist is considered the best place in the UK for the aquatic plant Slender Naiad, which is a European Protected Species. "[60] There are gales one day in six at the Butt of Lewis and small fish are blown onto the grass on top of 190 metre (620 ft) high cliffs at Barra Head during winter storms. [77], The individual island and place names in the Outer Hebrides have mixed Gaelic and Norse origins. The median age in the islands was estimated to be 49.5 years (Scottish average 42 yrs) in June 2019. His skald Bjorn Cripplehand recorded that in Lewis "fire played high in the heaven" as "flame spouted from the houses" and that in the Uists "the king dyed his sword red in blood". [8], The largest islands are deeply indented by arms of the sea such as Loch Ròg, Loch Seaforth and Loch nam Madadh. The oldest links in the Outer Hebrides, it was designed by Old Tom Morris. [120][121] However the economic position of the islands remains relatively precarious. Some of the larger islands have development trusts that support the local economy and, in striking contrast to the 19th and 20th century domination by absentee landlords, more than two thirds of the Western Isles population now lives on community-owned estates. [8][57][58], The Outer Hebrides have a cool temperate climate that is remarkably mild and steady for such a northerly latitude, due to the influence of the North Atlantic Current. Grimsay in the Outer Hebrides now has superfast broadband, and there's hope it will help business and the population. There are 53 Sites of Special Scientific Interest of which the largest are Loch an Duin, North Uist (151 square kilometres (37,000 acres)) and North Harris (127 square kilometres (31,000 acres)). 152–158, See for example Maclean (1977) Chapter 10: "Arcady Despoiled" pp. [76] Innse Gall (islands of the foreigners or strangers) is also heard occasionally, a name that was originally used by mainland Highlanders when the islands were ruled by the Norse. News Environment Outer Hebrides battle to reverse steep population decline When Mary Anne MacLeod left the Isle of Lewis in 1930 to start a new life …
2020 outer hebrides population